It all confuses me, too. Sometimes I do the missions to get badges and I don’t get them, sometimes I click on a badge someone else has and it doesn’t work, and sometimes it takes me there and doesn’t even tell me what to do to get the badge.
Have you checked out some of the topics in the category “Heroes”? Usually there are some actions that you can take here that complete badges, like for instance the Gleek activist is achieved by completing actions under the hero pages for Jane Lynch and Lea Michele (I love them!). Good luck, I hope you achieve what you are looking for!